1. What is normal menstruation?
Menstruration refers to periodic endometrial periodic loss and bleeding with cyclical changes in the ovarian.The first day of bleeding is the beginning of the menstrual cycle. The interval between the first day of menstruation is called a menstrual cycle, generally 21-35 days, with an average of 28 days.The duration of menstruation is called menstrual period, generally 2-8 days, and menstrual blood is dark red, and the normal menstrual flow is 20-60 ml.There are generally no special symptoms during menstrual periods, but due to pelvic congestion and prostaglandin during menstruation, some women will have symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea.
The adjustment of the menstrual cycle mainly involves the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovarian, and the hypothalamic brain secretes GNRH. By regulating the secretion of pituitary gonad hormones, regulating ovarian function, sex hormones secreted by the ovaries have feedback to regulate the hypothalamus.The hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovarian affect each other and regulate each other, forming a complete and coordinated nerve endocrine system, called the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis.
2. What is dysmenorrhea?
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological symptoms. It refers to lower abdomen pain and swelling before and after menstrual period, accompanied by lumbaric acid or other discomfort, severe symptoms and affecting quality of life.Dysmenorrhea is divided into two types: primary dysmenorrhea and secondary dysmenorrhea. There are significant differences in the impact and treatment of the two.
3. What is primary dysmenorrhea?
Primary dysmenorrhea refers to the dysmenorrhea of the genital organic lesions, accounting for more than 90% of the dysmenorrhea.Primary dysmenorrhea is more common in adolescence and often develops within 1-2 years after the early menstrual tide; the pain starts after the menstrual tide, and the earliest appears in the first 12 hours of menstruation. The first day of menstruation is the most severe.After the sky, the pain is often spasm, usually located in the lower abdomen, which can be radiated to the lumbosacral and the inside of the thighs. It can be accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, and fatigue.No abnormal discovery.
4. What are the causes of primary dysmenorrhea?
The occurrence of primary dysmenorrhea is mainly related to the elevation of endometrial prostaglandin (PG) content during menstruation.Studies have shown that the content of PGF2α in the endometrium and menstrual blood in patients with dysmenorrhea increases significantly compared with normal women. The increase in PGF2α content can cause excessive uterine smooth muscle contraction, vascular contracture, causing uterine ischemia and hypoxia state to cause dysmenorrhea.The main cause of dysmenorrhea.
5. How to diagnose primary dysmenorrhea?
According to menstrual abdomen, gynecological examination and imaging examination can be diagnosed.Diagnosis needs to be identified with secondary dysmenorrhea. Secondary pain often develops symptoms several years after the early menstrual tide. There are abnormal discovery of gynecological examinations, and it is accompanied by a history of gynecological diseases.
6. How to treat primary dysmenorrhea?
Primary dysmenorrhea should pay attention to psychotherapy. Mild discomfort during menstruation is a physiological reaction. Elimination of tension and concerns can relieve pain.In addition, sufficient rest, sleep, regular and moderate exercise and smoking cessation can help relieve pain.Pain can not be able to endure drug treatment when the pain cannot be tolerated. The commonly used drugs are:
(1) Prostaglandin synthet enzyme inhibitors, such as ibuprofen, ketic plants, bisloprotenic acid, 萘 pins, etc., ibuprofen 200-400 mg, 3 times a day, can effectively relieve pain;
(2) Oral contraceptive pills are suitable for dysmenorrhea women who require contraceptives with more than 90%.(Generally do not use calcium ionizer blockers, antispasmodic sedation and other drugs, painkillers are enough)
7. Each dysmenorrhea takes painkillers. What are the side effects?
Prostaglandin synthase inhibitors are the most commonly used analgesic drugs. For long -term taking such drugs, gastrointestinal reactions, liver function abnormalities, coagulation dysfunction, granulocytes, and abnormal nervous systems.reaction.Primary dysmenorrhea is generally the most severe pain on the first day of menstruation. It can be relieved after 2-3 days. It only needs to take medicine during dysmenorrhea and does not need to be taken for a long time.There are generally no obvious side effects.If you take obvious discomfort after taking the medicine, such as allergic symptoms such as rash, edema, and asthma, you should immediately stop the medicine and go to the hospital for treatment.
8. What should I eat for dysmenorrhea?
Patients with dysmenorrhea should pay attention to avoid eating cold and irritating food, and other diets are not special.
9. Will dysmenorrhea affect pregnancy?
Primary dysmenorrhea generally does not affect normal ovulation and pregnancy.The infertility rate of patients with secondary dysmenorrhea has increased significantly, accompanied by infertility rates with endometriosis is as high as 40%.
10. How to prevent dysmenorrhea?
Dysmenorrhea has no good prevention methods.
11. How to cure dysmenorrhea?
Dysmenorrhea has no root treatment.
12. Girl dysmenorrhea, will it be good when you get married?
Adolescent dysmenorrhea is mostly primary dysmenorrhea. The occurrence of primary dysmenorrhea is mainly related to the increase in endometrium prostaglandins during menstruation. Educational PGF2α content in the body is the main cause of dysmenorrhea and has nothing to do with marriage.However, some women’s postpartum dysmenorrhea symptoms will be reduced or disappeared, which may be related to the subjective feelings of spiritual, neurological and pain.
13. What is secondary dysmenorrhea?
Secondary dysmenorrhea refers to dysmenorrhea caused by pelvic wares. Common organic diseases are endometriosis and uterine adenomia.
14. What is endometriosis?
When the endometrium appears outside the uterine body, it is called Endometriosis (EMT), referred to as internal disease.Extreme endometrium can violate any part of the whole body, but most of them are located in the pelvic and wall peritoneum, and are the most common with ovarian and palace 骶 ligaments.Because endometriosis is estrogen -dependent disease, after natural menopause or artificial menopause (drug effect or surgical removal of bilateral ovarian), the lesion can gradually shrink and absorb. In addition, pregnancy can temporarily prevent the development of the disease.
15. What are the causes of endometriosis?
The cause of endometriosis may be in the pelvic cavity with the influx of the ovarian and adjacent pelvic peritoneums with the vascular and neighboring pelvic peritoneums.Study theory of menstrual blood.In addition, endometriosis may also be related to genetic, immune, inflammation and other factors.
16. What are the symptoms of endometriosis?
The typical symptoms of endometriosis are secondary dysmenorrhea and aggravated. The pain is mostly located in the middle and lower abdomen, lumbosacral, and pelvic cavity. It often appears during menstrual tide and continues to the entire menstrual period.The abnormal lesion can cause discomfort in sexual intercourse, manifested as lower abdominal pain during sexual intercourse, and can also be manifested as infertility and menstrual abnormalities.
17. Why does endometriosis cause dysmenorrhea?
Ectulable endometrium occurs periodic bleeding with the changes in ovarian hormones, leading to the hyperplasia and cysts and adhesion of surrounding fibrous tissue.The ovarian is the most easily invaded part of the ectopic endometrium. After the ectopic endometrial invasion of the ovaries, it will grow and repeat cyclically bleeding in it to form cysts.-20 cm, contains dark brown, chocolate -like old liquid, so it is also called ovarian chocolate cyst.The cysts bleed during menstrual period, increased internal pressure in the cavity, and the cyst wall easily ruptured. After the rupture, the contents of the sac will stimulate the local peritoneum, that is, the inflammatory response of other organ, which causes lower abdominal pain.Similarly, the ectopic endometrium can also infringe the ligament, rectal uterine, and the posterior wall of the uterine, etc., causing deep pain in the pelvic cavity.
18. Why does endometriosis cause infertility?
Infertility rates of patients with internal diseases are as high as 40%, the cause of infertility is complicated, mainly due to:
(1) Changes in the micro -environment in the pelvic cavity will affect the combination of essence;
(2) Excstisible immune function will lead to an increase in endometrial antibodies, causing damage to endometrium, and improving the bed of fertilized eggs;
(3) Internal disease can cause abnormal ovarian function and cause ovulation disorders;
(4) Patients with medium to severe can cause tubal adhesion, leading to tubal twisted, narrow, and even atresia, which affects the combination of essence and fertilized eggs.
19. How to diagnose endometriosis?
Women who have a fertility age have secondary dysmenorrhea and exacerbated, infertile or chronic pelvic pain. Pelvic examination found that cystic blocks connected to the uterus or tendonal nodules in the pelvic cavity can be preliminarily diagnosed as endometrium abnormalities.Parania.In addition, type B ultrasonic examination and serum CA125 test also help the diagnosis of the disease. Laparoscopic examination is currently recognized as the best diagnostic method internationally internationally.
20. How to treat endometriosis?
The treatment of endometriosis emphasizes individualization:
(1) Patients with mild or asymptomatic symptoms can use analgesic control drugs such as ibuprofen, ketonopafen, etc. to control pain;
(2) Mild patients with fertility requirements can be treated first. In severe cases, in severe cases, surgery of reserving fertility function;
(3) Young patients with young and unparalleled fertility can be used to retain ovarian function;
(4) Those who have no fertility requirements with severe symptoms and lesions may consider root treatment surgery.
21. What are the drug treatment of endometriosis?
The method of drug treatment mainly includes fake pregnancy and fake occurrence. The commonly used drugs are:
(1) Oral contraceptive pills can directly act on endometrium and ectopic endometrium, leading to endometrial atrophy and decreased menstruation, suitable for patients with mild endosis;
(2) progesterone can cause the level of high pregnancy hormones in the body, play a role in inhibiting the growth of the endometrium and controlling dysmenorrhea. It is a fake pregnancy therapy;
(3) Totinone ketone can reduce the level of estrogen in the body, atrophy and absorption of atrophy and absorption of ectopic endometrial;
(4) GNRH-A drugs are commonly used drugs for internal disease treatment. By inhibiting pituitary secretion of gonadotropin, the level of ovarian hormone has decreased significantly, and temporary amenorrhea occurs. The current commonly used drugs include Bright Primrin andGoshelin.
22. Which surgical method should be selected for endometriosis?
Surgical treatment is applicable to those who have no alleviated symptoms after drug treatment, local lesions are intensified or have not recovered fertility function, as well as larger ovarian chocolate cysts.Laparoscopic surgery is the preferred surgical method. The surgical method is:
(1) Reserve fertility function surgery: suitable for patients with young and fertility requirements, surgery can be cut or destroyed all visible lesions, separate adhesions, and restore normal anatomical structures, but retain the uterus, one side or bilateral ovaries.The postoperative recurrence rate is about 40%;
(2) Preserve ovarian function surgery: suitable for patients under 45 years of age with obvious symptoms and no fertility requirements, remove the pelvic lesions and uterus, and retain at least one or part of the ovaries.The postoperative recurrence rate is about 5%;
(3) Renal surgery: For severe patients over 45 years of age, surgery will remove the uterine, double attachment and all the internal endometrium lesions in the pelvic cavity. The treatment of estrogen does not require estrogen after surgery, and it will almost not recur.
23. Why do GNRH-A drugs need to be applied after endometriosis?
At present, laparoscopic diagnosis, surgical and drug treatment are the gold standard for internal disease treatment.GNRH-A drugs can inhibit pituitary secretion gonadotropin, resulting in a significant decline in estrogen secretion of ovarian secretion, which can effectively inhibit the growth of residual micro lesions, exact effect, long period of half-life and good stability.ovulation.The application of GNRH-A drug treatment after surgery can effectively delay recurrence and create time for postoperative pregnancy.
24. When is the appropriate pregnancy after treatment of endometriosis?
At present, patients with endometriosis are believed to have surgery and GNRH-A for treatment, and pregnancy can be considered after the drug is discontinued to restore normal menstruation. If you try to be pregnant for half a year of pregnancy, the reproductive center is recommended.
25. How to prevent endometriosis?
The cause of endometriosis is not clear, and many factors play a role. Therefore, the prevention effect is limited. The main attention is to pay attention to the following two points: ① prevent menstrual blood from flowing, and timely discover and treat diseases that cause menstrual blood retention, such as congenital reproductive tract malformations, atresia, atresia, atresia, locking, and atresia, locks,Sten and secondary cervical adhesions, vaginal stenosis, etc.; ② Drug contraception, oral contraceptives can inhibit ovulation, promote endometrial atrophy, and reduce the risk of endometriosis.
26. What is uterine adenomia?
Adinomyosis (adenomyosis) refers to the endometrial gland and interstitial invasion of the uterine muscle layer.Most of the maternal maternal 30-50 years occur, about 15% of the merging endometriosis at the same time, and a minority of adenomycles lesions show limited growth to form nodules or group blocks, called uterine adenomaoma (Adenomyoma).The main symptoms are excessive menstrual dysmenorrhea, excessive menstrual period, extended period, and gradually aggravating. The pain is located in the middle of the lower abdomen. It often starts with the first weeks of menstruation until the end of menstruation.
27. How to diagnose uterine adenomia?
Based on the typical symptoms, the preliminary diagnosis can be made in the increase of the uterine enlargement of the uterus in gynecological examinations. Type B ultrasonic examination can help the diagnosis of the disease, but the diagnosis depends on the pathological examination after surgery.
28. How to treat uterine adenomia?
The treatment of uterine adenomy disease should be determined according to symptoms, age, and fertility requirements. At present, there is no root treatment, and surgery is the main treatment method.① Patients with adenomyomycreatus and adenomia who have fertility and recent periods can relieve symptoms, such as trigamone and GnRH-A drugs; ② patients with young or fertility requirements, feasible uterine glandsFibroma excavation, but there is a risk of recurrence after surgery; ③ Those with severe symptoms, no fertility requirements or invalid drug treatment, feasible whole uterine resection, whether the ovaries are retained depends on the age of patients and the wit disease of the ovaries.
29. What are the side effects of GNRH-A drugs?
The side effects of GNRH-A drugs are mainly similar to the symptoms of menopaopsy, vaginal dryness, decreased sexual desire, muscle pain, and bone loss. They are related to the level of estrogen too low in the body.In 3-6 months of drugs, appropriately add estrogen (anti-add therapy, please consult the doctor for specific medication), improve the symptoms of patients, prevent bone loss, and does not affect the efficacy of GNRH-A drugs.
30. Is it effective to drink brown sugar water and hot compresses on dysmenorrhea?
The raw material of brown sugar is sugarcane, more than 95% of brown sugar is sucrose, and also contains vitamins and trace elements. In addition to replenishing energy, there is no other special effects.Hot drinks and hot compresses can play a role in diastolic blood vessels, which may help relieve dysmenorrhea, but the effect is uncertain.For the treatment of dysmenorrhea, it is not possible to blindly use hot compresses, brown sugar water and other methods. The hospital should be treated. First, the type of dysmenorrhea is clear.
31. Can I drink coffee, tea, cola and other drinks during menstruation?
Menstrual hot drinks help alleviate dysmenorrhea. Coffee and tea can be consumed in moderation. Carbonated cold drinks such as cola and Sprite may increase dysmenorrhea and avoid drinking.
32. What are the precautions for menstrual periods of primary dysmenorrhea?
General precautions include: pay attention to rest, strengthen nutrition; pay attention to keep warm, avoid cold irritating food and drinks; avoid severe exercise.