Text/Zhang Donghui Guan Yan Ran
"Ghost Babies" has become a high -frequency word that has appeared in Korean social news recently -it refers to the "unparalleled babies" who have a birth record in the hospital but have not been registered for birth.
In the past month, the South Korean police have announced the case of killing babies or abandoning infants related to seven starters.The survey issued by the Ministry of Health and Welfare Department on July 18 showed that among the 2123 "Ghost Babies" born from 2015 to 2022, 249 people have died, accounting for 11.7%.
"This is a sad and shocking thing, and it is also the shame of the Republic of Korea." Yin Zaiyu, chairman of the South Korean Parliament, said, "I feel very shame and sorry." He promised that Congress will not only promote the revision bill related to birth registration, but alsoThe "Act where the birth of birth information allows anonymous in medical institutions" will be introduced.
This is not the first case of killing a baby in Korean society.In recent years, many young parents who abandon their children stood in the court and cried and said, "Thinking of him or her must have live a life that is more unfortunate than me, and I feel scared."focus on.Many neglects of South Korea’s legislative level have also laid the root of the appearance of more "ghost babies".
On the afternoon of July 4, the Juji City police were looking for a baby body.
The lead of this series of "ghost babies" case occurred in Mizuhara City, the capital of Gyeonggi -do, South Korea, only 30 kilometers from Seoul.
On June 21, local time, the police found the bodies of two babies in an apartment in Chang’an District, the city. They stored them in the refrigerator for 4 years, 7 months and 3 years and 7 months.The criminal suspect of the case was their biological mother Gao.
On June 21, the police found the bodies of two babies in an apartment in Chang’an District, Mizuhara City.
"I can’t believe it. People who seem to be so gentle have killed their two children by themselves." After the case was announced, residents nearby residents nearby shook their heads in the face of media interviews, "What kind of mood should I open the refrigerator every day?"
After getting married with her husband Li, she had three children, a 12 -year -old daughter, a 10 -year -old son, and a 8 -year -old daughter.In the eyes of neighbors, her character is quiet and easy -going, and is a mother who takes care of her children.However, when Gao Mou explained all the criminal facts, the truth of the incident surfaced.
According to Gao Mou’s confession, after giving birth to three children, the economic conditions at home have been quite difficult.In 2017, Gao was pregnant unexpectedly. After discussing with her husband, she chose to have an abortion.One year later, she became pregnant again.But the cost of abortion for millions of won made her unable to afford it. She eventually abandoned an abortion and said to her husband that "he killed the child herself."
In November 2018, she went to the hospital alone to give birth to a baby girl and took it home the next day.She wrapped the baby’s body with a cricket, put it on the black plastic bag and put it in the freezer of the refrigerator.In November 2019, she killed her fifth child in the same way -a baby boy.Her husband knew nothing about all of this.
Gao Mou stated in a police investigation: "Because of economic difficulties, it is difficult to raise these two children." Gao and her husband worked in a call center, but their income was not optimistic.From the perspective of health insurance late records, the two have failed to pay insurance premiums from April 2019.In response to the saying that Gao’s family is in the "dead corner of welfare", the relevant person in the Mizuhara Municipal Government said: "If the potential poor class does not take the initiative to apply, local autonomous groups will not support separately."
On June 30, the South Korea’s Gyeonggi Police Department was transferred to the prosecutor for murdering and hiding corpses.
After the "Waterfront Broken Baby Case" was exposed, the South Korean government began to conduct a "ghost baby" investigation nationwide.This makes more and more cases public.
According to data released by the South Korean Institute on June 22, in the eight years from 2015 to 2022, at least 2,236 newborn born in South Korea have not registered.On July 18, the Ministry of Health and Welfare of South Korea announced the survey results of 2123 people who had left the number of newborn numbers.It was confirmed that 249 of them died, 1025 people survived, and 814 people had to investigate further, and the remaining 35 people misunderstood the medical institution.Police initially identified seven guardians of death babies (8 people in total) were suspected of crime and had been inspected for relevant cases.
Police initially identified seven guardians of death babies (8 people in total) were suspected of crime and had been inspected for relevant cases.
However, this does not include foreign children.According to the data released by the Institute, there are more than 6,000 newborns who have not been declared in the 8 years, of which more than 4,000 are foreign people.On July 12, Li Jiri, the first officer of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, said: "In order to expand the scope of the protection of ‘ghost babies’, the government will start investigating the whereabouts of babies born in foreign mothers."
According to a survey of the South Korean MBC TV "Straight" column, the number of children adopted overseas in South Korea in 2020 ranks third in the world.Among the top 20 countries, only South Korea belongs to developed countries.In the case of repeated fertility rates, Korean infants and young children are constantly "disappearing", which shocks public opinion.
Kim Yunxin, a forensic professor at the Korean University School of Medicine, pointed out in a paper published in May this year that economic difficulties are the main cause of maternal abandoned infants.
He took a total of 91 cases such as abandoning babies and abandoning babies from 2013 to 2021 as an example. Except for cases that repeated and lack of information, 20 cases of 20 cases under 1 year old were analyzed (10 deaths, abandoned 10, abandoned abandonment, abandoned abandonment10).Among them, as many as 13 maternal age is 20 to 29 years old, accounting for 65%, followed by 3 to 39 years old, 2 years old, 2 years old, 40 to 49 years old, and one remaining one cannot be confirmed.EssenceIn addition, unmarried pregnancy produces 18 and 2 married.
The survey shows that young unmarried women have become the main group of abandonment or killing babies. The most common reason is "afraid of others’ facts of pregnancy" and "choose abandoning babies due to poor economic conditions."
On behalf of Kim Minzhen, the non -governmental organization "South Korea’s Unmarried Mother Family Association" said: "Women who have accidentally pregnant are not helpful in society and psychologically. They will make mistakes in killing children in a state of isolated crisis."
In 2020, an unmarried mother posted on a second -hand trading platform in South Korea, saying: "I hope someone will give 200,000 won to adopt my child." The post triggered a discussion among netizens.After investigation by the police, the unmarried mother deleted the post.However, some other unmarried mothers expressed their understanding, and they wrote: "Who can be shaken by the temptation of money when the society is insufficient to support unmarried mothers? For unmarried mothers, this is a kind of help."
More unmarried mothers complained on social media: "It is difficult for children to raise children alone, and the government provided by the government can only receive it every two years, and only 1.03 million won (about 5863 yuan) at a time.Money is not enough to raise children. "
In July, South Korean TV MBC’s "Straight" program group analyzed the judgment of 58 babies killed and abandoned in the past 5 years.39%of the cases were due to "economic reasons", and 29%of the case was "worrying about having children will be known to people around and family."Economic reasons become a decisive trigger condition for killing and abandoning babies.Unmarried mothers were originally difficult to live. In addition, 58 of the 58 cases of 58 cases were public toilets, and most women chose to give birth at home.
On July 10, the police were searching for the bodies related to the infant of the Longren.
The South Korean government has issued a "National Happiness Card" to provide pregnant women with 1 million won (about 5688 yuan) for production inspection and maternity subsidies.For young pregnant women under the age of 19, additional subsidies will be given more than 1.2 million won.However, a million -won gift package still cannot solve the economic burden of these people.
The cost of breeding after production is also a big problem.The Korean government provides 200,000 won subsidies to low -income single -parent families every month, and provides subsidies of 350,000 won for young single -parent families (father or mother is under 24 years old).However, Li Fengzhu, a professor at the Department of Social Welfare of the Seoul University, pointed out: "If you want to raise a infant, you need to spend at least 1 million won per month. Only by giving these people more subsidies can they raise children to grow up.
In South Korea, the death penalty is generally sentenced to death, life imprisonment, or at least 5 to 30 years in prison.The crime of killing babies is far lower than the general murderer.
According to the country’s "Criminal Law", in order to cover up shame or unable to raise, the direct relatives, especially because the babies in childbirth or baby during childbirth, will be sentenced to 10 years in prison for 10 years.If the baby is killed without raising children, the judge can deal with it as appropriate.Among them, about half of the murderers in the case of killing the baby would be sentenced to execution slowly, and the other half was sentenced to three years in prison.
The "Zheng Ren case" that made a sensation in 2020 allowed the people to call for the punishment of child abuse.In February of that year, Zhang and An had adopted Zheng Ren who had just been 8 months old.During the adoption, they violently beaten and abused against Zheng Ren, causing fractures such as collarbone and ribs. Zhang also violence against Zheng Ren’s "not eating".After being adopted for 271 days, Zheng Ren died on October 13, 2020 due to pancreas.
Zheng Renhe adopted mother
The extremely cruel means of the two murderers made the Korean people feel angry.South Korean society has set off a relay activity of "Zheng Ren, sorry", calling on the government to make more efforts in preventing child abuse.In January 2021, the South Korean Parliament adopted a legal amendment called "Zheng Renfa" (full known as the "Special Law Amendment to Child Abuse of Crime Penalty"), and increased penalties for child abuse.
The Korean people mourn in front of Zheng Ren’s tomb.
In May 2021, the Criminal Court of the District Court in the southern Seoul announced that Zheng Ren raised his mother Zhang’s life imprisonment, and his adoptive father An had a term of 5 years in prison.In November of the same year, the Seoul High Court overturned the court of first instance on Zhang’s life imprisonment, minus to 35 years in prison, and maintained the first trial of the 5 -year sentence of An Mou’s sentence.
However, from the cases in recent years, it has been difficult for infants to be severely punished.
In March 2023, a mother in Daegu died of an unmarried child in a plastic bag because of her unmarried child.In November 2022, a young mother in Busan covered her baby’s mouth and nose for economic difficulties and was sentenced to 2 years in prison and 3 years in probation.In November 2021, a mother of Datian threw the baby on the side of the road and killed it, and was sentenced to 2 years in prison by the court.In January 2021, a woman in Gaoyang gave birth to her baby at home and threw him from the 4th floor to death. The prosecutor had originally requested that she was sentenced to 5 years in prison, but she was finally sentenced to 2 years in prison.
On the afternoon of July 11, the police were looking for a baby body at the foot of a mountain in Guangyang City, Nannan Nan.
In response, Wu Shanji, a Korean lawyer from a prosecutor, questioned: "Our society watched the cuffs of parents to kill their children, and always let it go on a way to reduce sentencing!"The defendant generates so -called resonance to reduce his sentence, and must be judged strictly.
On the afternoon of July 18, the South Korean Parliament held a plenary conference to vote for the amendment to the Criminal Law to kill and abandon the baby who would be killed and abandoned.The amendment will be implemented 6 months from the date of announcement.This is the first time that South Korea has established the Criminal Law in September 1953, the first amendment of the regulations on abandoning and killing babies after 70 years.
On the afternoon of the 18th, the South Korean Parliament held a plenary meeting to vote and approve the Criminal Law Amendment. The maximum criminals who killed and abandoned the baby would be sentenced to death.
According to Zai Xian, a member of the research committee of the Institute of Criminal Legal Policy, it is a very terrible crime to kill babies, but all responsibilities cannot be pushed to the mother."There are various social elements behind this incident. The country can clearly protect the child’s life, but because the state does not care about this social problem, the crime of killing babies is constantly occurring."
Faced with the voices of "repeated occurrence of a baby killing case, the crime of killing babies should be abolished", Li Xiuzhen, a criminal psychologist and a professor at Gyeonggi University, said: "Postpartum depression does exist, especially those minors.The possibility of crime in unstable mental state increases, so it cannot be solved with severe punishment. "
In the "Waterfront Broker Case", the murderer Gao chose to abandon abortion because he could not bear the abortion fee of millions of won.But in fact, in South Korea, even the options of abortion appeared shortly.
On January 1, 2021, South Korea officially abolished abortion.Since then, this 66 -year -old crime has completely disappeared, and South Korea has ushered in the legalization of abortion.However, after the abolition of abortion, South Korea has not been able to formulate a health care system that protects the right to terminate pregnancy, and related supplementary legislation is not perfect.
As early as October 2020, the South Korean government announced a draft bill to legalize the abortion within 14 weeks of pregnancy.In the case of sexual assault or due to social, economic or healthy reasons, abortion should be allowed from 14th to 24 weeks of pregnancy.Members of Congress also proposed amendments.However, the South Korean Congress did not vote on the amendment before the deadline for December 31, 2020.
"When talking about the problem of killing and abandoning babies, you need to fully understand all the problems encountered during the pregnancy and childbirth of women. Pregnancy can not be completely stopped by contraception."If a woman who does not have the condition of raising conditions suddenly get pregnant or give birth, it will be in a very panic. Therefore, the state should consider how to protect the rights of the parties in this process, and it is necessary to discuss legal gaps. "
Some comments believe that it is precisely because of the lack of law that the right to terminate the pregnancy of Korean women has not been guaranteed."Although the crime of abortion is lost, the government and Congress have not formulated a legal system to protect the legitimate rights and interests of women. Can all hospitals undergo abortion surgery? The fees are also different. Women cannot terminate pregnancy for various reasons, and they cannot be unable to stop pregnancy, and they cannot be unable to end.To raise children, the tragedy of killing babies and abandon babies occur. "
Behind a series of cases of killing infants is South Korea’s constantly refreshing global low fertility record.South Korea’s total fertility rate in 2022 (the average number of children with a child childbearing woman) was 0.78, the lowest value since 1970.In the first quarter of this year, South Korea set a minimum record in the same period with a total fertility rate of 0.81.The South Korean government therefore pessimistic predictions that the total fertility rate in 2023 may fall to 0.73, and in 20125 to 0.61.
South Korea’s total fertility rate in 2022 (the average number of children with a child childbearing woman) was 0.78, the lowest value since 1970.
"As soon as the child is born, he has an independent personality. Parents regard the child as property, abuse, or even killing the child. This is an obvious criminal act." The South Korean "Busan Daily" commented that at the national level, it is necessaryBaby behavior punishment to improve social understanding."In a country with a birth rate of only 0.78, if even children born on this land are not protected well, this country is failed. The priority is to formulate integrated support measures from pregnancy, childbirth to childbearing to childcare, improve the system, and make the law more more law.strict."
Behind the "ghost baby" case, it also reflects the huge loopholes in population management.After the child is born, the guardian does not need to immediately register in the hospital, just register within one month of birth.Parents who are not registered for newborns in time will only face a fine of 50,000 won in each child.
Therefore, the South Korean Congress held a plenary meeting on June 30 to make amendments to the "Family Relations Registration Law" on the implementation of the birth notification system.The bill stipulates that within 14 days from the birth of the baby, the medical institution must report the baby’s birth information to the local autonomous group through the health insurance review and evaluation institute, and then register the population by local autonomous groups.In addition, if the parents have not registered for more than a month after the baby is born, the person in charge of the local government must notify the mother to register within 7 days.
"This is a encouraging change that can prevent the emergence of ‘Ghost Baby’." Park Jung -yu, Secretary -General of the Life Council of the Seoul Pavilion, commented.However, he also pointed out, "We still cannot ignore the abortion rate that mothers may increase their births outside the hospital and accompany the birth notification system. It is just an institutional improvement and cannot fundamentally solve the problem."
Some experts are worried that pregnant women who are unwilling to expose their identity may avoid production in hospitals, especially those unmarried pregnant women who have concealed their families alone because of their psychological burdens, and they have this possibility.If the life of maternal and newborn cannot be guaranteed before fertility, the possibility of killing or abandoning infants will increase.
A window for family relations such as birth registration and other family relationships in Seoul.
In this regard, the Seoul Municipal Government took the lead to implement a comprehensive support system for crisis pregnant women from September this year."Crisis pregnant women" refers to pregnant women who encounter difficulties in fertility and childbearing due to economic, psychological, physical difficulties and other reasons.It is reported that Seoul will open a 24 -hour consultation window in the future to set up a "crisis comprehensive support for pregnant women" to provide customized services based on the personal conditions and intentions of pregnant women.
In addition, the Ministry of Health and Welfare of South Korea is accelerating the legislation of the so -called "protective fertility policy".The policy allows mothers to give birth under anonymous; and if they abandon custody, the government will provide institutional support for newborns.
European and American countries have had similar attempts.Germany’s "trust maternity system" allows pregnant women to give birth anonymously, and the state will manage their biological mother information, and children can query relevant information after adulthood.France’s "anonymous birth system" will leave identity records or maintain permanent anonymous according to the wishes of the biological mother.The "baby asylum system" in the United States exempts the maternal liability of the mother who abandoned the baby in the specified shelter within 72 hours or 50 days, and guarantees the mother’s anonymity.
However, South Korean society is still controversial.Cui Yala, a professor at the Department of Children of Gwangju University in South Korea, believes: "It should not be rushed to introduce similar policies, which may allow parents to easily give up custody. From the perspective of newborn, this policy has also deprived him of his birth information such as biological parents and other birth information.The right to know should be treated with caution. "