Preventing newborns defects: The focus of prenatal screening must be known

Experts in this article

Zhang Hui, director and chief physician of the Capital Pediatric Institute

Dai Pu, Director and Chief Physician of the Academic Committee of the Sixth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital of the General Hospital of the PLA

Children’s health is the top priority of many families. Once they are sick, parents are worried.According to the "China Birth Defect Prevention Report (2012)" released by the Ministry of Health in 2012, the incidence of defects in the birth of newborns in my country is about 5.6%, and about 900,000 children with new birth defects each year ①.Among them, congenital heart disease and hearing disorders are key diseases with high incidence, severe disease burden, and affecting newborns’ health.

On August 25, under the guidance of the Maternal and Child Health of the National Health Commission, Tencent released the "Red Umbrella Program". The plan will be established and implemented through the "screening diagnosis and treatment of a network" innovation model.The ability to screen, diagnose, and treat, and help improve the health level of grass -roots women and children.

Creal disease:

The two early screening points must be known!

"The incidence of congenital heart disease in my country is 7 ‰ to 8 ‰, and there is still a tendency to gradually increase." Professor Zhang Hui, director of cardiac surgery director of the Institute of Pediatrics of the Capital, said that the incidence of congenital heart disease in various regions is different. The rate is 6 ‰ ~ 7 ‰, and the incidence of heart disease in the Tibet and Yunnan regions is as high as about 20 ‰.

What are the causes of cardiology?

Professor Zhang Hui said that the occurrence of congenital disease may be related to a series of genetic factors and environmental factors.For example, early pregnancy mothers may infected the virus, or take some drugs, or contact a toxic and harmful environment, or receive too much radiation, or mothers have diabetes and phenyliuria, which may affect the health of the fetus.

How to discover the heart disease early?

Professor Zhang Hui suggested that at the 18 weeks to 24 weeks of pregnancy, the pregnant mother must do a fetal ultrasonic heart dynamic diagram check. This is specifically for examination of the fetal heart. It can observe the shape of the heart to check the in organic lesion of the heart.Mainly deformed, such as ventricular interval defects, room septal defects, etc.It is a very effective early diagnosis that children have congenital heart malformations.Another screening time is 24 to 72 hours after the birth of the newborn. The current method of promoting in my country is mainly to measure the saturation of heart murmur and meridian vein blood oxygen.These two methods have no trauma and high reliability.

What are the treatment methods of psychological diseases?

The current treatment methods of Pioneer Heart Diseases mainly include two categories, one is traditional surgery, and the other is to intervene in blocking surgery.In recent years, traditional surgery has gradually moved towards small cut oralization or minimally invasiveness, and intervention itself is minimally invasive. The damage is small and the patient recovers quickly."Overall the treatment effect of congenital heart disease is very good." Professor Zhang Hui said, "Most of the congenital heart disease, such as common ventricular septal defects, room septal defects, arterial ducts are not closed, pulmonary stenosis, etc., the cure rate is close to 100%. "

"The vast majority of patients with heart disease have no difference from normal people after treatment. They work, live, study, and get married normally." Professor Zhang Hui said, "There are still some patients who are worried about whether they will be inherited to the next generation. In factDon’t worry, congenital heart disease is not a genetic disease, and most of the first -generation heart disease will not be inherited to the next generation. "

Children with deafness:

It is critical to find out early!

"The incidence of deafness in newborns is 1 ‰ to 3 ‰. At present, there are 20,000 to 30,000 children with deafness each year each year." Said Professor Dai Pu, director of the Academic Committee of the Sixth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital of the General Hospital of the PLA General Hospital.

What are the causes of deafness in children?

"50%to 60%of children’s deafness is inherited, which is caused by genetic mutations." Professor Dai Pu said that the second major factor is virus, such as giant cell virus, herpes virus, mump virus, and pregnant mothers have intrauterine infectionsOr infection after the baby is born, "especially the giant cell virus, it is very clear that it has something to do with the damage of the hearing organs." In addition, fever, hypoxia, and jaundice are also the main causes of deafness in newborns.

How to find a child with deaf deaf?

To determine whether the newborn has hearing impairment, parents need to observe carefully. For example, the child has a very subtle voice and is very sensitive, and most of them have no major problems;With a variety of sound tests, if you find that children are not sensitive to various sounds, they need to find a doctor to identify and diagnose.

Some children were found to be deaf by their parents at the age of 3 or 5 before they started to see a doctor.Some people say that "nobles are late", they must pay attention, and late speaking may also be caused by hearing impairment.In order to prevent parents from judging errors, large and medium -sized cities across the country have already performed newborn listening screening, which can screen most newborn deafness.

What are the treatment methods of new deafness?

If the child is suspected of deafness, it is necessary to further clarify the degree of deafness, judge whether it is conductive deafness, mixed deafness, or sensible neurotic deafness."For example, the child’s hearing is very poor and the deafness is extremely heavy, which may be neurofapt. This deafness accounts for most of it." Professor Dai Pu suggested that children with deafness must start intervention between 3 months and half years old.Late half -year -old."We hope that all new deaf children will accept intervention within 6 months, and they will accept recovery, including wearing hearing aids. If necessary, consider implantation of cochlear implantation between half -year -old and one year old."

Preventing birth defects,

These points are important!

Preventing birth defects, in addition to people’s more familiar active marriage inspections, pregnancy inspections, regular production examinations, and supplementation folic acid, according to the "core information of birth defect prevention and control of health education" issued by the National Health Commission, the following aspects should also be paid to the prevention of birth defects.

1. Youth fertility, scientific pregnancy prepare for pregnancy

Women over 35 years of age are pregnant as an elderly pregnancy, which will increase the risk of endless pregnancy ending such as hypertension, diabetes, and embryonic discharge, abortion, and fetal birth defects.

2. Avoid contact with toxic and harmful substances

Toxic and harmful substances such as lead, mercury, benzene, formaldehyde, pesticides should be avoided before and during pregnancy, and radiation is avoided.

3. Actively treat your own disease

Women who plan to get pregnant, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, thyroid diseases, lung diseases, mental disorders, autoimmune diseases, etc., should be actively treated, and they should be prepared after the disease is cured or stable.

4. Careful medication during pregnancy

During pregnancy, disease may have adverse effects on mothers and fetal health.Pregnant women should seek medical treatment in a timely manner. Under the guidance of a doctor, do not take medicine without authorization, nor should they refuse to take necessary drugs because they are too worried about the effect of the drug on the fetus.

5. Timely screening after newborn birth

After the birth of the newborn, the screening of diseases such as phenyloneuria, congenital thyroid dysfunction, and hearing disorders should be received in time to promote early discovery, early diagnosis, and early treatment of congenital diseases;Essence

"Red Umbrella Plan",

Screening and treating a network

"At present, there is indeed a gap between the screening level of birth defects." Both experts mentioned the problem of the level of diagnosis and treatment in different regions.Professor Zhang Hui believes that in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment level of priority screening in the relatively backward medical level, we must first strengthen the professional training of grass -roots doctors to improve the diagnosis and treatment technology of grassroots doctors.As a compulsory project in the screening; finally, social public welfare organizations actively participate in popular science propaganda.

Professor Dai Park said that "screening and treating a net" is a good concept. The screening is to discover; then the specific diagnosis is mild deafness, moderate deafness, or severe deafness or severe deafness. FinallyProvide the best rehabilitation and intervention methods.The ultimate goal is to let these children return to society.

The "Red Umbrella Plan" will be gradually implemented in low resource areas in the central and western regions.On the basis of the provincial big data accumulation and effective management of the Health Commission of the Pilot Area, Tencent will make full use of the advantages of technology and platform to build a benchmark mode of "screening and treating a network" in major infants and young children to achieve screening from screening from screeningInvestigation, diagnosis, treatment to the management of rehabilitation all-chain, and full coverage of infants 0-6 years old to promote early screening and early treatment and early treatment.It is understood that the plan starts with two congenital diseases, congenital diseases and hearing disorders, and finally hopes to promote the positive recall rate of congenital heart disease screening rate, congenital heart disease and hearing impairment in the newborn.Can not treat or return to poverty due to illness.

According to reports, the "Red Umbrella Plan" starts from the pilots of Guyuan and Wu Zhong in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.In the future, the plan will also extend to more high -incidence of women and children.

Reference materials:

① In 2012, the former Ministry of Health "China Birth Defect Prevention Report (2012)"

② On September 12, 2019, the National Health and Health Commission "Core Information of Birth Deficiency Prevention and Control of Health Education"

Source: Health Times

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