Three principles of medication during pregnancy: 1. Try not to take medicine as much as possible in the early pregnancy. Second, severe infection and early medication, self -limiting diseases do not necessarily take medicine. Third, try to prefer A and B drugs.The US Food and Drug Administration (referred to as FDA) divided drugs into five categories: Class A: In a sufficient and good control of human trials, no risk of fetal abnormalities was found.Evaluation: This kind of medicine is the safest to fetus.Class B: It does not affect animal fetuses in animal tests, but there is no enough human test evidence; or in animal tests, it has adverse effects on animal fetuses, but human tests cannot be confirmed to be harmful to the fetus.Evaluation: This kind of drugs are safe to fetuses.Class C: Animal tests can affect animal fetuses, but no human test; or no animal and human test.Evaluation: This kind of medicine must be used by physicians to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages before they can be used.Class D: After testing or observation of the human body, it is found that the fetal abnormality will be increased.Evaluation: Unless it is necessary (severe condition in pregnant women) can be used.Class X: In animal or human trials, evidence of abnormal fetal abnormalities is clearly found.When pregnant women suffer from bacterial infectious diseases, they need to use antibacterial drugs, and clinicians are required to master the principles, antibacterial spectrum, dosage, toxic side effects of the drug, and to be familiar with whether these drugs have an impact on the fetus, the degree of influence, the period of the period, the period of the period; It is necessary to achieve the purpose of cure diseases, but also minimize the impact on the fetus.According to the influence of antibacterial drugs on the fetus and the toxic effect of the mother, it is divided into three categories of pregnancy that can be used during pregnancy, carefully used in pregnancy, and disabled during pregnancy.Antibacterial drugs (Class B) drugs that can be selected during pregnancy are safer, which is basically no harm to the mother and fetus.The sterilization principle of penicillin this type of antibiotics is to hinder the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, and mammals have no cell walls. Therefore, this type of antibiotic is the least toxic to the human body and does not cause fetal malformations.However, its disadvantage is that the antibacterial spectrum is narrow, and it is unstable to the β -lactamase produced by bacteria. It is easy to produce resistance, unstable to acid, and cannot be taken orally; allergic reactions are prone to occur.However, the semi -synthesis and composite penicillin preparations that are currently put into use have made up for these shortcomings from multiple aspects. They are both acid -resistant or enzyme -resistant and broad -spectrum antibiotics, and it is not easy to produce allergic reactions.Although the antibacterial spectrum of each preparation is different, the common point is the effect of no teratogenic.The entire process of pregnancy can be applied.Such as injecting penicillin sodium, oral oral amoin capsule, etc.Cefacin (third generation) This type of antibiotic is very similar to penicillin, and its impact on the mother and fetus is relatively small.What is superior to penicillin is widely antibacterial spectrum, stabilize the β -lactamase produced by acid and various bacteria, and the incidence of allergies is low.The first generation of cephalosporin has a certain renal toxicity, the second -generation renal toxicity is low, the third generation has basically non -toxicity for the kidney, and the entire process of pregnancy can be applied.Such as cephalosporin sodium, cephalosporin sodium, etc.Macroscopichyls are antibacterials, which are similar to penicillin.However, it has its own characteristics: it is very useful for respiratory tract infections caused by general bacteria, and it is also effective for mycoplasma, chlamydia, toxoplasty, etc. The concentration of blood medicine is not high, but the tissue distribution and intracellular migration are good, low toxic, and less perverted.It is a safe use of antibiotics during pregnancy. The entire pregnancy process can be applied.Pregnant women who are allergic to penicillin with respiratory tract infection can choose such drugs, such as Azithromycin.Anti -analogenous bacteria and anti -trichomonas drugs have proven that it has a mutagenic effect on bacteria, so it is also dangerous for humans.Avoid applications within 3 months of pregnancy to prevent fetal malformations.Such as metronidazole, tinidazole.Antibacterial drugs (Class C) Class C drugs used carefully during pregnancy only proved to be teratogenic or can kill embryos during animal experiments. It has not been confirmed by human research.Can be applied.This type of antibiotics of chloramphenicol can accumulate in the fetus through the placenta. Because the lack of glucosal acid metastases in the fetal liver, the detoxification function of such drugs is affected; vomiting, anorexia, anorexia, anorexia, anorexia, and occurrence of newborns in the later pregnancy period.Abdominal distension can eventually lead to circulating failure, called "gray baby syndrome". It is used with caution in early and in the early stages of pregnancy, and it is disabled in the third trimester.This type of drug in this type of ketone is low toxic and has no deformed mutation effect, but can cause joint lesions of young animals and affect cartilage development; it also has an impact on the spirit of the nerves, so it is avoided during pregnancy.Such as fluorine, ciprobine, etc.Sulfa drugs can enter the carcass through the placenta, and competitive plasma protein combined with bilirubin with fetal blood can increase the plasma ionized bilirubin.Blood -brain barrier, causing fetal brain injury or neonatal nuclear jaundice after birth, so avoid application during pregnancy.Such as sulfrazine, compound new Nuo Ming, etc.Antibacterial Chinese herbal medicine has the effect of direct excitement of the smoothing muscles of the uterine, so a large amount can lead to premature birth. Pregnant women should use it with caution; Banlangen and large green leaves are similar plants, and they should also be used with caution.Antibacterial drugs (D) DDs disabled during pregnancy have exact evidence of the harm of the fetus. Unless the pregnant woman has an absolute effect after medication, the application is not considered.Amino glycosides have ear and renal toxicity, poor renal removal ability, large individual differences in drug concentrations, which can easily lead to increased blood drug concentration; high drug concentration in the inner ear lymphic fluid.Infants are mainly related to the dosage of hearing impairment, which has little to do with the month of pregnancy, but its incidence is 3 % to 11 %.Avoid applications from the entire process of pregnancy.Such as rinseein, scatomycin, etc.Tetracyclines are typical of fetal deformities.In the early stages of pregnancy, the fetal limbs can be dysplained and short -limb malformations; dental buds are dysplasia and congenital cataracts are caused by the second trimester; the dysfunction of liver dysfunction caused by pregnant women in the second trimester, so tetracycline antibiotics should be prohibited throughout pregnancy.Such as tetracycline, 土omycin, etc.Erythromycin this type of antibiotics can cause liver stasis and liver damage in the liver of pregnant women, causing elevated transaminase, large hepatoba, and obstructive jaundice. The incidence rate is as high as 40 %.Related, the entire process of pregnancy is avoided.Such as relying on erythromycin (tasteless erythromycin), Ajuycin, etc.Antibacterial (adult) drugs can counter progesterone, inhibit the production of fluff nourishing cells, which can cause abortion and disable in early pregnancy.Liushen Wan is a clear heat and swelling medicine. Its effective ingredients are toad crisps and musk, which can cause uterine contraction, cause abortion or premature birth, so pregnant women are disabled.Basic principles of medication during pregnancy 1. Correctly select the most effective drugs that are not damaged to the fetus and are the most effective disease for pregnant women.2. Use a drug to avoid combined medication. If you can use the old medicine with certain effects, avoid using new drugs that have not yet determined to have adverse effects on the fetus. A large dose of drugs can be avoided with small doses of drugs.3. When pregnant women have emergency situations, they must be used for medication, and they should also try to use Class A and B drugs that have been verified by many years of clinical verification of teratogenic abnormality (the use of type A drugs is safe, and it has no adverse effects on the health of the mother and fetus).4. Consider medication according to the size of the pregnancy week, that is, the fetal development period, if within 3 months of pregnancy, it is an important period of fetal organs. The medication should be particularly cautious and can be delayed. Try to delay this period.5. According to the different degree of effect on the fetus, it is used from choosing the minimum effect on the fetus.If pregnant women are combined with hyperthyroidism, the sequence of medicines are: sedatives (stable), β -blockers (aminoly heart), and anti -thyroid metabolic drugs (propyl oxide).6. Try to avoid unnecessary medication during pregnancy, including health products.There have been reports in Hong Kong: Ginseng’s main active ingredients have teratogenic effects on rats embryo. It is recommended that women use cautious ginseng within 3 months before pregnancy.Foreign reports: Licorice can stimulate pregnant women to create prostaglandins in the body, which can make pregnant women premature and use them with caution in the early pregnancy.7. In order to prevent drugs from inducing fetal malformations, 3 months before pregnancy, it is better not to use C and D drugs.After 3 months of pregnancy, the advantages and disadvantages are also required when using Class C drugs, and it can be applied when confirming that the profit is greater than the disadvantages.Under normal circumstances, type D drugs are prohibited during pregnancy.8. Pregnant women should give "warnings" when rescue and special circumstances use C and D drugs.Such as allergic shock caused by serum products, when calcium glucose (Class A), poker (Class B) is not effective, you have to use drugs such as isramia (C), dicemthon (C), so that you canEffectively control the condition.There are also anti -epilepsy treatment drugs (D) for pregnant women with epilepsy. The frequent seizures of epilepsy during pregnancy have great damage to the mother and fetus, so they have to use the medicine to control epileptic seizures;Patients with pregnancy receive amino glycoside (Class D) during pregnancy. Vancin, chloramphenicol, sulfona, and fluorinel (Class C) must be monitored to reduce the side effects of the drug.